Defining Happiness

I have been away for nearly 8 months and haven’t really written something thought-provoking. I can blame the never-ending circle of daily routine for that. Since my last writing, life has changed a lot and for good Allhumdullilah! I feel more focused and  energised.

I have been meaning to write something for a few weeks now. Lots of thoughts have come and gone but nothing has stuck.

Today, while going to office I witnessed a mother and her 5-year-old kid playing. The kid was asking for a chocolate as if his life depended on it. The mother was hesitant on giving him the chocolate bar. A point came when the kid started crying so loud that all the passengers started noticing what was going on. Suddenly, the mother handed him the chocolate bar and the happiness amidst the flowing tears of the kid was evident. He was ecstatic as if he had found everything he had wished for. That innocent, happy face of the kid remained with me for the rest of the day and I started thinking about Happiness, Content, Satisfaction, Peace and the thought stayed…

What is Happiness? Have we really ever stopped and thought about it, what is real Happiness? Is it money? Is it social status? Is it lineage? Is it a good life, freedom from suffering, flourishing, well-being, joy, prosperity and pleasure?

There are many answers to this question. Defining happiness can seem as elusive as achieving it. We want to be happy, and we can say whether we are or not, but can it really be defined, studied and measured? And can we use this learning to become happier? Psychologists say yes, and that there are good reasons for doing so. Positive psychology is “the scientific study of the strengths and virtues that enable individuals and communities to thrive.”

Mustafa Kamal Mahmoud Husayn, an Egyptian scientist and a prolific author once said;

“I feel happy because I am an average man with an average income. My health is average, my standard of living is average and I have a little of everything, which means that I have a lot of motivation, and motivation  is life. The motivation in our hearts is the true warmth of life, the basis on which we evaluate our happiness”. I pray to Allah that He may bless the reader of these lines with an average life, and give him a little of everything…this is a good prayer, I swear by Allah the Almighty”

This is called contentment, and contentment means having enough, having a little of everything and a great deal of spiritual energy.

“…And if you count the favour [Blessings] of Allah, you could not enumerate them…” (Quran 14:34)

I, or for that matter any of us cannot really define in words what true happiness is, we can only feel it. For us a beautiful day, a happy, content, peaceful day is the day on which we have control of our affairs and our affairs do not control us. It is the day on which we control our desires and we are not controlled by them like slaves. Some of these days I can remember and will never forget. Every day on which I manage to save myself from the vicious circle of worrying about what I can and cannot do is a wonderful day. How wonderful is the day on which I was hesitating whether to do a deed for which people would praise me or a deed for which no one would praise me, and no one would know about it, so I forsook the praise of people and was content  to do an action which I will remember for as long as I live, but which no one will hear about?

How wonderful is the day on which I felt that my pockets were filling with money but my conscience was devoid of dignity, so I decided that I would rather be penniless and have a clear conscience?

These days are wonderful, and the most wonderful thing about them is that my worldly gain on these days is very small but the fact I gained self-respect from my actions far outweighs that, and what I gained on such days is great !

The OS Conundrum

I have just finished reading a post on ZDNet titled “Are Hyper-V and App-V the new Windows Servers?” in which the author – Kenneth Hess discusses that the rise of virtualisation will shape the future of the Microsoft Windows OS such that, in his words:

The Server OS itself is an application. It’s little more than (or hopefully a little less than) Server Core. Of course, you could deploy either major server type onto physical hardware or into virtual machines.

The author is also advising his readers that they “have to learn a new vocabulary” and that they’ll “deploy services and applications as workloads.”

This has been a topic of discussion for many years now and I believe in 2006 Scott Lowe actually discussed this in one of his blogs “The Future of OS” and argued that the general purpose OS could vanish in 10 years’ time. Although, to my surprise he was at the wrong end of the stick regarding Mac OS X as we see today, windows  OS taking more advantage of the virtualisation solutions. It is only recently that they have tried building virtualisation into the OS (10.7) to run windows and Aqua applications side by side.
Furthermore, almost 5 years ago, Srinivas Krishnamurti of VMware wrote an article Get Juiced! describing a new concept (at the time). This new concept was the idea of a trimmed OS instance that served as an application container:

By ripping out the operating system interfaces, functions, and libraries and automatically turning off the unnecessary services that your application does not require, and by tailoring it to the needs of the application, you are now down to a lithe, high performing, secure operating system – Just Enough of the Operating System, that is, or JeOS. An OS finely tuned to the application it supports is smaller, more secure, easier to manage, and higher performing than a general purpose OS. A smaller footprint means IT organizations can run more instances per server.

The idea of the server OS as an application container—what Ken suggests in very Microsoft-ish way in his article – is certainly not a new idea, but it is good to see those outside of the VMware space opening up to the possibilities that a full – blown general purpose OS might not be the best answer anymore. Whether it is Microsoft’s technology or VMware’s technology that drives this innovation is open for discussion but it is obvious that this concept is already being deployed and will gain further popularity as IT companies will look to reduce their carbon foot print drastically.

The OS finished, but its just starting I would say !

Food for thought: If this really is happening then what is in store for massive upgrades in the pipeline i.e. Windows 8 coming out soon and Server 2012 in the planning as well?

Questioning Integrity

Greg Baum sensed something was rotten about the Sydney Test in January, 2010, but his column was withheld on legal advice. Last week three Pakistan cricketers were jailed for spot-fixing during a Test in England, and evidence suggests corruption was not confined to that game. Today the column was published as an example of the suspicion that could not be aired then, but now cannot be suppressed.

 —————————————————————————————————————————————————————

THERE is a question about the way the Sydney Test ended that has to be asked. It is a question that has already been asked in bars, back rooms and on websites, a question that you can be sure the International Cricket Council is asking. It is a question you’ve probably asked yourself. It is a question colleague Peter Roebuck asked obliquely on Thursday (January 7, 2010) when he wrote: ”A team trying to lose could hardly have played any worse.”

Overnight, Australia was 8 down and 80 ahead. Yet for all of the 2½-hour morning session on the last day, Pakistan appeared to do no more than spread its field wide and wait for either Mike Hussey or Peter Siddle to get out. For Hussey, it made some sense. For Siddle, for hours at a time, it made less. For both, it made none. Siddle, said Brad Haddin, was the perfect foil for Hussey because he ”had no shots”.

Yet sometimes Siddle took block with men on the fence at deep point and deep square leg. He was unlikely to hit to one or the other. He was NEVER going to hit to both. ”We had to stay defensive with Hussey,” said Pakistan captain Mohammad Yousuf. ”Siddle ended up playing well, scoring 40 runs. We didn’t realise he could”. After two hours, they knew it. Yet still nothing changed.

Yousuf had gained something of a reputation in this series for flair in captaincy. On most fielding days, he was more likely than Ricky Ponting to station a third slip. Now, though, he was content to play cat and mouse. It rarely works, even for good teams. It didn’t work again. Yet still Yousuf persisted. Tactically, it was baffling. Then there were the catches. Kamran Akmal dropped four. One, you might say, was unlucky, two careless, three culpable. Four and you might be forgiven for looking for another explanation. Ian Healy had one of a sort for the first three – when a left-hander is facing a spinner, he tends to pick up his bat into the face of the wicketkeeper, unlike a right-hander. Akmal’s first three fumbles all came with Hussey facing Danish Kaneria, but the fourth was a sitter, Siddle gloving seamer Umar Gul to leg, Akmal had time see it and not far to move yet he butchered the chance.

 Keepers are preceded by their reputations. Akmal first appeared in Australia five years ago and made a strong impression with bat and mitts. ”A magnificent showing with the gloves,” recorded Cricinfo. In the next two years, he ”maintained a high standard”. Later, his form slipped. But nothing about him in the first 1½ Tests here suggested anything less than a competent Test match wicketkeeper and it was not as if the pitch was dicey or even difficult.

 Prim a facie, Pakistan’s subsequent collapse could be explained: It was demoralised, Australia was rampant, the target was tricky. Pakistan’s aggressive beginning looked to be right, strategically. But no adjustment was made, even as the wickets fell. Only two can say categorically that the ball was too good. The rest hit out and got out. Teenager Umar Akmal alone should be spared some sympathy for his slog, knowing the paltriness that followed.

Ponting said he was not surprised because such a middling target acted as a taunt when the wickets began to tumble, and because his team by then had the moral advantage. No team in the world could have resisted Australia in those circumstances, he said. A year ago, South Africa chased 183 in the fourth innings at the MCG, and got them for the loss of one wicket.

So, questions arise… THE QUESTION arises…

Cricket is in a state of seemingly constant flux. The dynamics are changing, formats and competitions shaping and reshaping. Some might be tempted to think that in the general mayhem, no one is watching. Two age-old blights resurfaced in headlines this week: Match – Fixing and Ball – Tampering.

Vigilance cannot be relaxed even for a minute. It is not enough to say that a particular team, player or captain had seemed so unlikely; it was said too often before.

It might be the question that cannot be asked in as many words, but for the sake of Pakistan, for the sake of Australia, for the sake of the integrity of Test cricket, it must be answered.

This article was originally published in “The Sydney Morning Herald” on 5th November 2011 here.

 

 

Selective Islam – An Article by Imran Khan (1998)

My Generation grew up at a time when colonial hang up was at its peak. Our older generation had been slaves and had a huge inferiority complex of the British. The school I went to was similar to all elite schools in Pakistan, despite becoming independent, they were, and still are, producing replicas of public school boys rather than Pakistanis. I read Shakespeare which was fine, but no Allama Iqbal.

The Islamic class was not considered to be serious, and when I left the school I was considered amongst the elite of the country because I could speak English and wore western clothes. Despite periodically shouting Pakistan Zindabad at school functions, I considered my own culture backward and Islam an outdated religion. Amongst our group if any one talked about religion, prayed or kept a beard he was immediately branded a Mullah. Because of the power of the Western media, all our heroes were western movie or pop stars. When I went to Oxford already burdened with this hang up from my school days, things didn’t get any easier. In University not just Islam but all religions were considered anachronism. Science had replaced religion and if something couldn’t be logically proved it did not exist. All supernatural stuff was confined to the movies. Philosophers like Darwin who with his half-baked theory of evolution was supposed to have disproved the creation of men and hence religion.

Moreover, the European history had an awful experience with religion, The horrors committed by the Christian clergy in the name of God during the Inquisition had left a powerful impact on the western mind.

To understand why the west is so keen on secularism, one should go to places like Cordoba in Spain and see torture apparatus used during Spanish Inquisition. Also the persecution of scientists as heretics by the clergy and convinced the Europeans that all religions are regressive. However, the biggest factor that drove people like me away from religion was the selective Islam practised by most of its preachers. In other words, there was a huge difference between what they practised and what they preached. Also, rather than explaining the philosophy behind the religion, there was an over emphasis on rituals. I feel that humans are different; to animals whereas the latter can be drilled, humans need to be intellectually convinced. That is why the Qur’an constantly appeals to reason. The worst of course, was the exploitation of Islam for political gains by various individuals or groups. Hence, it was a miracle I did not become an atheist.

The only reason why I did not was the powerful religious influence wielded by my mother on me since my childhood. It was not so much out of conviction but love for her that I stayed a Muslim. However, my Islam was selective, i.e. I accepted only parts of the religion that suited me. Prayers were restricted to Eid days and occasionally on Fridays, when my father insisted on taking me with him. If there was a God I was not sure about it and certainly felt that he did not interfere with my life. All in all I was smoothly moving to becoming a Pukka Brown Sahib. After all I had the right credentials in terms of the right school, university and above all, acceptability in the English aristocracy, something that our brown sahibs would give their lives for. So what led me to do a lota on the Brown Sahib culture and instead become a desi? Well it did not just happen overnight. Firstly, the inferiority complex that my generation had inherited, gradually went as I developed into a world-class athlete. Secondly, I had the unique position of living between two cultures. I began to see the advantages and the disadvantages of both the societies. In western societies, institutions were strong while they were collapsing in our country. However, there was an area where we were and still are superior, and that is our family life. I used to notice the loneliness of the old-age pensioners at Hove Cricket ground (during my Sussex years). Imagine sending your parents to Old Peoples’ Homes! Even the children there never had the sort of love and warmth that we grew up with here. They completely miss out on the security blanket that a joint family system provides. However, began to realise that the biggest loss to the western society and that in trying to free itself from the oppression of the clergy, they had removed both God and religion from their lives. While science can answer a lot of questions, no matter how much it progresses, two questions it will never be able to answer: One, what is the purpose of the existence and two, what happens to us when we die? It is this vacuum that I felt created the materialistic and the hedonistic culture. If this is the only life then one must make hay while the sun shines and in order to do so one needs money. Such a culture is bound to cause psychological problems in a human being, as there is going to be an imbalance between the body and the soul. Consequently, in the USA, which has shown the greatest materialistic progress and also gives its citizens the greatest human rights, almost 60 per cent of the population consult psychiatrists. Yet, amazingly in modern psychology, there is no study of the human soul. Sweden and Switzerland, who provide the most welfare to their citizens, also have the highest suicide rates; hence, man is not necessarily content with material well-being he needs something more. Since all morality has it roots in religion, once religion was removed, immorality has progressively escalated since the 70′s. The direct impact of it is on the family life. In UK, the divorce rate is 60 per cent, while it is estimated that there are over 35 per cent single mothers. The crime rate is rising in almost all western societies, but the most disturbing fact is the alarming increase in racism. While science always tries to prove the inequality of man (recent survey showing the American Black to be genetically less intelligent than whites) it is only religion which preaches the equality of man. Between ’91 and ’97, it was estimated that total immigration into Europe was around 520,000, and there were racially motivated attacks all over, especially in Britain, France and Germany. In Pakistan during the Afghan war, we had over four million refugees, and despite the people being so much poorer here and in the NWFP, they suffered a considerable loss in their standard of living as a result of the refugees yet, there was no racial tension, No wonder, last year in Britain, religious education was reintroduced into schools.

There was a sequence of events in the 80′s that moved me towards God. As the Quran says: “There are signs for people of understanding”. One of them was cricket. As I was a student of the game, the more I understood the game, the more I began to realize that what I considered to be chance was, in fact, the will of Allah, the pattern which became clearer with time. But it was not until Salman Rushdie’s Satanic Verses that my understanding of Islam began to develop. People like me who were living in the western world bore the brunt of anti-Islam prejudice that followed the Muslim reaction to the book. We were left with two choices: fight or flight. Since I felt strongly that the attacks on Islam were unfair, I decided to fight.

It was then I realised that I was not equipped to do so as my knowledge of Islam was inadequate. Hence I started my research and for me a period of my greatest enlightenment. I read scholars like Ali Shariati, Mohammad Asad, Iqbal, Gai Eaton, plus of course, a study of the Holy Quran.

I will try to explain as concisely as is possible, what “discovering the truth” meant for me. When the believers are addressed in the Quran, it always says, “Those who believe and do good deeds.”

In other words, a Muslim has dual function, one towards God and the other towards fellow human beings. The greatest impact of believing in God for me, meant that I lost all fear of human beings. The Quran liberates man from man when it says that life and death and respect and humiliation are God’s jurisdiction, so we do not have to bow before other human beings. As Iqbal puts it:

Wo aik Sajda jisay tu giran samajhta hai,

Hazaar sajdon say deta hai aadmi ko nijaat.

Moreover, since this is a transitory world where we prepare for the eternal one, I broke out of the self-imposed prisons, such as growing old (such a curse in the western world, as a result of which, plastic surgeons are having a field day), materialism, ego, what people say and so on. It is important to note that one does not eliminate the earthly desires, simply that instead of being controlled by them, one controls them.

By following the second part of believing in Islam, I have become a better human being. Rather than being self-centred and living for the self, I feel that because the Almighty gave so much to me, in turn I must use that blessing to help the less privileged. By following the fundamentals of Islam rather than becoming a Kalashnikov-wielding fanatic I have become a tolerant and a giving human being who feels compassion for the under-privileged.

Instead of attributing success to myself, I know it is because of God’s will, hence humility instead of arrogance. Also, instead of the snobbish Brown Sahib attitude towards our masses, I believe in egalitarianism and strongly feel against the injustice done to the weak in our society according to the Quran, “Oppression is worse than killing.” In fact only now do I understand the true meaning of Islam, if you submit to the will of Allah, you have inner peace. Through my faith, I have discovered strength within me that I never knew existed and that has released my potential in life: My education programme that I intend to announce in March is far more ambitious than the cancer hospital project.

I feel that in Pakistan we have selective Islam. Just believing in God and going through the rituals is not enough one also has to be a good human being. I feel there are certain western countries with far more Islamic traits than us, especially in the way they protect the rights of their citizens, or for that matter their justice system. In fact some of the finest individuals I know live there. What I dislike about them is their double-standards in the way they protect the rights of their citizens and yet consider citizens of other countries as being somehow inferior to them as human being, e.g. dumping toxic waste in the Third World, advertising cigarettes that are not allowed in the west and selling drugs that are banned in the west. One of the problems facing Pakistan is the polarisation of two reactionary groups. On the one side is the westernised group that looks upon Islam through western eyes and has inadequate knowledge about the subject. It reacts to any one trying to impose Islam in the society and wants only a selective part of the religion. On the other extreme is the group that reacts to this westernised elite and in trying to become a defender of the faith, takes up such intolerant and self-righteous attitudes that are repugnant to the spirit of Islam.

What needs to be done is to somehow start a dialogue between the two extremes. In order for this to happen, the group on whom the greatest proportion of our educational resources are spent in this country must study Islam properly. Whether they become practising Muslims or believe in God is entirely a ;personal choice; as the Quran tells us that there is “no compulsion in religion.” However, they must arm themselves with knowledge as a weapon to fight extremism. Turning up their noses at extremism is not going to solve the problem.

The Quran calls Muslims “the middle nation”, i.e. not of extremes. The Holy Prophet (PBUH) was told to simply give the message and not worry whether people converted or not, therefore, there is no question in Islam of forcing your opinions on any one else. Moreover, we are told to respect other religions, their places of worship and their Prophets. It should be noted that no Muslim missionaries or armies never went to Malaysia or Indonesia. The people converted to Islam due to the high principles and impeccable character of the Muslim traders. At the moment, the worst advertisement for Islam are the Muslim countries with their selective Islam, especially where the religion is used to deprive people of their rights. In fact, a society that obeys fundamentals of Islam has to be a liberal one.

If our westernised class started to study Islam, not only will it be able to help our society fight sectarianism and extremism, but it will also make them realise what a progressive religion Islam is. They will also be able to help the western world by articulating Islamic concepts. Last year, Prince Charles accepted that the western world can learn from Islam during his speech at the Oxford Union. But how can this happen if the group that is in to best position to project Islam gets its attitudes from the west and considers Islam backward? Islam is a universal religion and that is why our Prophet (PBUH) was called a mercy for all mankind